- Open Access
Attenuation measurements show that the presence of a TachoSil surgical patch will not compromise target irradiation in intra-operative electron radiation therapy or high-dose-rate brachytherapy
© Sarmento et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015
Received: 1 October 2014
Accepted: 18 December 2014
Published: 9 January 2015
The Erratum to this article has been published in Radiation Oncology 2015 10:256
Surgery of locally advanced and/or recurrent rectal cancer can be complemented with intra-operative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) to deliver a single dose of radiation directly to the unresectable margins, while sparing nearby sensitive organs/structures. Haemorrhages may occur and can affect the dose distribution, leading to an incorrect target irradiation. The TachoSil (TS) surgical patch, when activated, creates a fibrin clot at the surgical site to achieve haemostasis. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of TS on the dose distribution, and ascertain whether it could be used in combination with IOERT. This characterization was extended to include high dose rate (HDR) intraoperative brachytherapy, which is sometimes used at other institutions instead of IOERT.
CT images of the TS patch were acquired for initial characterization. Dosimetric measurements were performed in a water tank phantom, using a conventional LINAC with a hard-docking system of cylindrical applicators. Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) curves were obtained, and measurements made at the depth of dose maximum for the three clinically used electron energies (6, 9 and 12MeV), first without any attenuator and then with the activated patch of TS completely covering the tip of the IOERT applicator. For HDR brachytherapy, a measurement setup was improvised using a solid water phantom and a Farmer ionization chamber.
Our measurements show that the attenuation of a TachoSil patch is negligible, both for high energy electron beams (6 to 12MeV), and for a HDR 192Ir brachytherapy source. Our results cannot be extrapolated to lower beam energies such as 50 kVp X-rays, which are sometimes used for breast IORT.
The TachoSil surgical patch can be used in IORT procedures using 6MeV electron energies or higher, or HDR 192Ir brachytherapy.
In intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT), ionizing radiation is used during a surgical intervention [1,2]. After removal of the neoplastic mass, the remaining area is irradiated for direct treatment of the resection margins, including positive margins, according to international protocols .
Surgery of locally advanced and/or recurrent rectal cancer can be complemented with intra-operative electron radiation therapy (IOERT). Sometimes, high-dose-rate brachytherapy (IO-HDR) with a source of Iridium- 192 (192Ir) is used instead of IOERT . Both modalities deliver a single radiation dose directly to the malignant tissues, while sparing nearby sensitive organs/structures [1,2].
Haemorrhages may occur in the pelvic area during a surgery, or a haematic fluid build-up, which may affect the dose distribution during irradiation if no haemostatic measures are applied . At our institution, surgery of locally advanced and/or recurrent rectal cancer is often complemented with IOERT, and fluid build-up is frequently observed. The solution adopted is to use constant suction. However, a residual accumulation of fluid generally remains.
TachoSil (Takeda Pharmaceuticals, Zurich, Switzerland) is an absorbable fibrin sealant patch indicated for haemostasis during surgical procedures [5,6]. To the authors’ knowledge, it has never been used in combination with IORT, and its radiation attenuation properties have never been measured or reported.
Since TachoSil (TS) has already proven useful in situations of pelvic bleeding [7,8], it seems reasonable to suppose that this sealant patch could be beneficial in IORT, as it would help minimize the fluid build-up by reducing the bleeding in or near the irradiation target. Before initiating clinical trials to assess its efficacy, safety and clinical relevance, it is necessary first to measure the attenuation properties of the TS patch, in order to determine whether its presence will affect the dose distribution. This is particularly important in IOERT, where dose calculations are performed manually, after visual estimation of the target area. More sophisticated forms of treatment planning would require computed tomography (CT) images of the patient, which are difficult to obtain during a surgical procedure. Therefore, any additional attenuation must be known in advance so it can be taken in consideration during calculations.
The aim of this work is to characterize the effect of a TachoSil (TS) patch on the dose distribution underneath it, through detailed dosimetric measurements.
The TS patch is a white collagen sponge coated on one side with a yellow layer of active components from human blood, fibrinogen and thrombin. When the sponge comes into contact with fluids (such as blood, lymph or saline solution) the fibrinogen and the thrombin are activated and form a fibrin network. This means the sponge sticks to the tissue surface, the blood coagulates (local haemostasis) and the tissue is sealed .
IORT procedures at our institution are always performed with high energy electron beams (IOERT), using a conventional linear accelerator (Varian 2100CD), with a hard-docking system of cylindrical applicators, with diameters ranging from 3 to 15 cm and bevel angles of 0, 15, 30 and 45° (Figure 1C). The available electron energies are 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18MeV, but only 6, 9 and 12MeV are used for IOERT.
To determine the effect of TS on the IOERT dose distribution, dosimetric measurements were performed in a water tank phantom (MP3, PTW-Freiburg, Germany). The applicator of 7 cm diameter, bevel angle of 0° was used for the measurements, with source to surface distance (SSD) of 134 cm. This is the reference SSD for this IOERT applicator system (usable SSDs range between 124 and 144 cm). Measurements were performed with an activated patch completely covering the IOERT applicator opening (Figure 1B) and without it. During measurements, either the tip of the applicator, or the TachoSil covering it, were in contact with the water surface (air gap = 0). Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) curves were obtained for the three clinically used electron energies (6, 9 and 12MeV) with a diode detector (type 60012 E PTW-Freiburg, Germany). A Markus ionization chamber (type N23343 PTW-Freiburg, Germany) was then placed at the depth of dose maximum (Dmax), and readings were obtained for 6, 9 and 12MeV, first without attenuator and then with the activated patch covering the tip of the applicator.
HDR brachytherapy with 192Ir is commonly performed at our institution, although not for IORT. For a more complete characterization and to anticipate future possibilities, this modality was also considered in the present study. Dosimetry for HDR brachytherapy is not usually done in water phantom, therefore a measuring setup was improvised using a white polystyrene phantom, also known as solid water phantom (type RW3 PTW-Freiburg, Germany). As shown in Figure 1D, one of the phantom slabs was adapted to hold a brachytherapy applicator (needle), connected by a cable to the afterloader device, which was programmed to position the 192Ir source at the centre of the slab, for 60s, for each measurement. The detector used was a Farmer ionization chamber (type 30006 PTW-Freiburg, Germany), placed inside the appropriate phantom slab. Four 1 cm slabs were added between the slab containing the needle and the one containing the Farmer chamber, as shown in Figure 1E. The activated patch was placed at the centre, between the second and third uniform slabs. Spacers less than 1 mm thick were added so that measurements could be performed with and without attenuator, at the same source-to-detector distance.
Results and discussion
CT images provide information about the way a material interacts with ionising radiation. This interaction depends both on the electronic density of the material, and on the type and energy of the incident radiation. Therefore the relationship between CT numbers and electronic density varies slightly between scanners and acquisition protocols . But within each CT image, materials with similar electronic density will have similar CT numbers, which in the context of this work is enough for comparison purposes. Typical CT numbers of relevant materials are −1000 HU for air, 0 HU for water, +92 HU to +137 HU for acrylic, +100 HU to +300 HU for soft tissue and −100 HU to – 50 HU for fat.
Attenuation of high energy electron beams (IOERT)
The similarity of the PDD curves is consistent with little or no attenuation of the TS patch. This is in good agreement with the results presented in the previous section, which indicate that the activated patch is a very thin (<1 mm) strip of material with electronic density lower than that of tissue.
Markus ionization chamber readings without (M) and with TachoSil (M T )
M T (nC)
2.259 ± 0.003
2.258 ± 0.003
2.714 ± 0.003
2.716 ± 0.003
3.015 ± 0.003
3.018 ± 0.003
No significant differences were observed in absolute measurements with and without TachoSil. All measured variations are within the experimental uncertainty of ±0.1%, confirming that the attenuation of the sealant patch is negligible for high energy electron beams of 6 to 12MeV.
The displacement of water caused by the presence of the sealant patch at the tip of the IOERT applicator was minimal. Nevertheless, to confirm that water displacement did not mask the attenuation, the measurements at the depth of dose maximum were repeated in a solid water phantom, for 6 and 12MeV, with similar results. The highest variation observed (−0.2% for 6MeV) was still within experimental error (±0.1%).
According to these results, this surgical patch can be used in combination with intra-operative electron radiation therapy (IOERT), for electron energies of 6MeV or higher, without any significant beam attenuation or alteration of dose distribution.
Attenuation of 192Ir (IO-HDR)
Farmer ionization chamber readings without (M) and with TachoSil (M T )
M T (nC)
3.486 ± 0.001
3.469 ± 0.001
When a TachoSil patch is placed between the phantom slabs, the resulting attenuation is ~0.5%. This is higher than observed for high energy electron beams, but still lower than the admissible uncertainty for radiotherapy output dose (2%). Even if more than one sealant patch is used, with overlapping, the combined effect will still be negligible. There is no need to account for added attenuation during treatment planning.
According to the manufacturer, TachoSil is sterilized by gamma irradiation after completion of inner and outer packaging . This sterilization is performed with a source of Cobalt-60 (60Co) delivering doses of the order of kGy . Therefore, the effect of radiation on the surgical patch itself was not studied, since it has already been subjected to doses much higher than the 10–20 Gy typically used in IORT treatments. Moreover, patch activation and sealing effect will occur before the IORT irradiation.
Intra-operative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) can be performed with conventional LINACs like ours, or with dedicated mobile units such as NOVAC7, Mobetron and LIAC. Mobile LINACs have higher dose rates [13,14] than conventional LINACs, but operate in a similar range of electron energies. For this reason, mobile LINACs were not considered separately in the context of this work.
At our institution, 9MeV is the most commonly used electron energy for pelvic IOERT, so the attenuation of the sealant patch was determined only for electron energies of 6 to 12MeV. It is important to note that these attenuation results cannot be extrapolated to lower electron energies, and especially not for low energy X-rays, which are sometimes used for breast IORT .
A preliminary assessment using a 50 kVp X-ray beam from a conventional radiodiagnostic unit suggests that, at such low beam energies, the attenuation could be as high as 6%. Therefore, TachoSil must not be used in IORT with low energy X-rays without further investigations, which fall outside the scope of the present work.
The activated TS patch is less than 1 millimetre thick. Even after activation, its electronic density remains lower than that of tissue. Our measurements confirm that the attenuation of the TS patch is negligible for electron energies between 6MeV and 12MeV. Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) curves obtained with and without attenuator are practically coincident, and dose readings at Dmax remained constant within experimental uncertainty. Moreover, the attenuation of the TS patch was found to be ~0.5% for a HDR 192Ir brachytherapy source, which is still negligible for the purpose of treatment planning.
Therefore, the TachoSil surgical patch can be used during IOERT and IO-HDR procedures, since it will not alter the dose distribution. Our next step is to ascertain the effectiveness, safety and clinical usefulness of this sealant patch during IOERT of the pelvic region. Hopefully it will help control the build-up of fluid affecting the dose distribution, by minimizing the bleeding near the irradiation target.
This work was partly funded by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) in the framework of project ref. PTDC/SAU-ENB/117631/2010.
- Calvo F, Meirino RM, Orecchia R. Intraoperative radiation therapy first part: rationale and techniques. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2006;59:106–15.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Edwin M, Anderson J. The dosimetric properties of an applicator system for intraoperative electron-beam therapy utilizing a Clinac-18 accelerator. Med Phys. 1981;9:261–8.Google Scholar
- Martinez-Monge R, Nag S, Martin EW. Three Different Intraoperative Radiation Modalities (Electron Beam, High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy, and Iodine-125 Brachytherapy) in the Adjuvant Treatment of Patients with Recurrent Colorectal Adenocarcinoma. Cancer. 1999;86:236–47.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hashiguchi Y, Sekine T, Sakamoto H, Tanaka Y, Kazumoto T, Kato S, et al. Intraoperative irradiation after surgery for locally recurrent rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 1999;42:886–93. discussion 893–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Birth M, Figueras J, Bernardini S, Troen T, Günther K, Mirza D, et al. Collagen fleece-bound fibrin sealant is not associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic events or major bleeding after its use for haemostasis in surgery: a prospective multicentre surveillance study. Patient Saf Surg. 2009;3:13.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rickenbacher A, Breitenstein S, Lesurtel M, Frilling A. Efficacy of TachoSil a fibrin-based haemostat in different fields of surgery - a systematic review. Drug Eval. 2009;9:897–907.Google Scholar
- Tinelli A, Mynbaev O, Tsin D, Giorda G, Malvasi A, Guido M, et al. Lymphocele prevention after pelvic laparoscopic lymphadenectomy by a collagen patch coated with human coagulation factors: a matched case–control study. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2013;23:956–63.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Toro A, Mannino M, Reale G, Di Carlo I. TachoSil use in abdominal surgery: a review. J Blood Med. 2011;2:31–6.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mutic S, Palta JR, Butker EK, Das IJ, Huq MS, Loo L-ND, et al. Quality assurance for computed-tomography simulators and the computed-tomography-simulation process: Report of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group No. 66. Med Phys. 2003;30:2762.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Low DA, Harms WB, Mutic S, Purdy JA. A technique for the quantitative evaluation of dose distributions. Med Phys. 1998;25:656–61.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Federal Drug Administration. TachoSil (Absorbable Fibrin Sealant Patch) Prescribing Information. In: Initial US approval. 2010.Google Scholar
- International Atomic Energy Agency. Trends in Radiation Sterilization of Health Care Products. Vienna, Austria; 2008.Google Scholar
- Palta JR, Biggs PJ, Hazle JD, Huq MS, Dahl RA, Ochran TG, et al. Intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy: technique, dosimetry, and dose specification: report of task force 48 of the radiation therapy committee, american association of physicists in medicine. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1995;33:725–46.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Beddar AS, Biggs PJ, Chang S, Ezzell GA, Faddegon BA, Hensley FW, et al. Intraoperative radiation therapy using mobile electron linear accelerators: report of AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group No. 72. Med Phys. 2006;33:1476–89.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nairz O, Deutschmann H, Kopp M, Wurstbauer K, Kametriser G, Fastner G, et al. A dosimetric comparison of IORT techniques in limited-stage breast cancer. Strahlenther Onkol. 2006;182:342–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.