- Open Access
Timing and intensity of changes in FDG uptake with symptomatic esophagitis during radiotherapy or chemo-radiotherapy
© Yuan et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 21 August 2013
Accepted: 3 January 2014
Published: 27 January 2014
To study whether esophageal FDG activity changes by time of mid-course of fractionated radiotherapy (RT), and whether these changes are associated with radiation esophagitis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Fifty patients with stage I-III NSCLC were enrolled prospectively and, all received ≥60 Gy RT. FDG-PET/CT scans were acquired prior to, and during-RT after delivery of 45 Gy. Normalized standardized uptake values (NSUV), defined by the esophageal maximum SUV relative to intravascular background level in the aortic arch, were sampled in the esophagus at the level of the primary tumor, sternal notch, aortic arch, carina, and gastro-esophageal junction. Symptomatic radiation esophagitis was defined as an event.
Compared to baseline, esophageal NSUV increased significantly during-RT at the level of the primary tumor (1.09 ± 0.05 vs.1.28 ± 0.06, p = 0.001), but did not change at other levels in the esophagus. 16 patients had radiation esophagitis events and these patients had significantly higher during-RT to baseline NSUV ratios than those without esophagitis (1.46 ± 0.12, 95% CI 1.20-1.71; vs. 1.11 ± 0.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.21, p = 0.002). Maximum esophageal dose (p = 0.029), concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.022) and esophageal FDG PET NSUV ratio (during-RT to baseline, p = 0.007), were independent factors associated with esophagitis and area under curves (AUC) were 0.76, 0.70 and 0.78, respectively. Combining esophageal maximum dose and FDG PET NSUV Ratio at the tumor level increased AUC to 0.85 (p = 0.016).
FDG uptake increased in esophagus during-RT and this increase may predict radiation esphagitis during later course of treatment.
Esophagitis is a common complication of patients who undergo thoracic radiation therapy (RT) for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and a source of considerable morbidity [1, 2]. Patients often complain of dysphagia and/or odynophagia late during the course of fractioned radiotherapy. Severe esophagitis can necessitate hospitalization, initiation of percutaneous or parenteral feeding, and treatment interruption. These complications significantly affect quality of life and can negatively impact long-term survival .
Clinical and dosimetric studies predicting the risk of radiation esophagitis have been performed [4–6]. For example, concurrent chemotherapy and esophageal radiation dose were correlated with the clinical severity of esophagitis, in some reports [7, 8]. 18Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) can show the functional status of a tumor through the visualization of its metabolic activity gauged by FDG uptake, and it can also provide additional information to aid in the understanding of radiation induced-esophagitis. Some investigators have reported esophageal FDG uptake after radiation therapy [9–14]. However, the correlation of esophageal FDG uptake and clinical signs and symptoms of radiation induced-esophagitis were not well studied. The purpose of this study was to examine whether esophageal FDG activity changes by mid-course of fractionated RT, and whether these changes in esophageal FDG uptake are associated with radiation induced-esophagitis late during course of treatment in patients with NSCLC.
Materials and methods
The study population included consecutively enrolled patients in prospective studies of FDG PET to predict treatment outcomes, approved by the institutional review board of University of Michigan. Adult patients with histologically confirmed stage I to III NSCLC (AJCC 2003) undergoing definitive radiation with or without chemotherapy were enrolled in the study. Patients with small cell lung cancer or mixed small cell/non-small cell tumor histology, pericardial effusion, pregnant or lactating were excluded from the study. This study received ethical approval from the institution review boards of University of Michigan and Ann Arbor VA. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this Case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.
FDG PET/CT imaging
The FDG-PET/CT scans were acquired 1–2 weeks before RT (pre-RT), and after the delivery of approximately 45 Gy (during-RT). The time of delivery of approximately 45 Gy of the total prescribed dose was chosen for the during-RT scan, with the intent that a dose to this threshold would provide control of microscopic disease and leave a reasonable amount of treatment remaining to alter the radiation therapy plan to include an additional RT boost. In cases of radiation administered in fractions other than 2 Gy, tumor dose was converted to a biological equivalent dose of approximately 45 Gy in 2-Gy fractions.
Radiation-induced esophagitis, represented clinically by the presence of either dysphagia or odynophagia, was assessed weekly and graded prospectively according to the National Cancer Institution (NCI) Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. The maximum degree of esophagitis documented during the course of radiotherapy or follow-up was considered the study endpoint for each patient.
The differences in FDG activity between time points were assessed by paired t-test and the difference between patients with and without symptomatic radiation esophagitis was assessed by independent t-test. A binary Logistic regression analysis model was used to test the correlations between symptomatic radiation-induced esophagitis, FDG activity ratio change and clinical findings. The performance of predictive models for esophagitis was analyzed by area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).
Patient characteristics and their relationship with radiation esophagitis
Patient characteristics and symptomatic esophagitis
Patients without esophagitis
Patients with esophagitis
Mean tumor dose
(95% CI, Gy)
Maximal esophageal dose
(95% CI, Gy)
Esophagus FDG uptake change at tumour level (During-RT/pre-RT)
Sixteen of 50 (32%) patients had clinically apparent radiation-induced esophagitis. These patients were younger than patients without symptomatic esophagitis (Median age 65 vs. 71, p = 0.044). Patients with stage III NSCLC had a higher rate of radiation-induced esophagitis than those with stage I-II (48% vs. 13%, p = 0.032). Patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy had a higher rate of esophagitis than those not treated with concurrent chemotherapy (45% vs. 6%, p = 0.004). Patients with esophagitis also had higher maximum esophageal radiation dose (69.0 Gy vs. 47.9 Gy, p = 0.001) than patients without esophagitis (Table 1). There were no differences in gender, KPS, histology type and prescribed PTV dose between patients with or without esophagitis.
FDG-uptake and esophagitis
Changes of relative FDG uptake during the course of radiotherapy
FDG uptake (NSUV)
Sternal notch level
Aortic arch level
Pulmonary ligament level
Erector muscle of spine
Patients with esophagitis had a significantly higher during-RT to baseline NSUV ratio at the tumor level than those without (1.46 [95% CI 1.20-1.71] vs. 1.11 [95% CI 1.01-1.21], p = 0.002).
Multivariate analysis for esophagitis
We analyzed the FDG PET scans of 50 patients with NSCLC and found that esophageal NSUV at the tumor level increased during-RT. NSUV increase from pre-RT is an independent measurement related to radiation-induced esophagitis, reflecting the accumulation of FDG in affected esophageal mucosa. Thus, FDG PET SUV may be an important supplement to traditional dose volume parameters associated with radiation-induced esophagitis.
Although there have been reports on the relationship of radiation esophagitis and FDG-PET, to our knowledge, this is the first study documenting the correlation between during-RT esophageal FDG-uptake and the presence of clinically documented radiation-induced esophagitis [9–14]. This is in addition to reports of patients with FDG uptake from bacterial esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus or gastroesophageal reflux . These conditions are characterized by linear intense FDG uptake throughout the esophagus not related to concurrent radiotherapy. The majority of radiation esophagitis reports using FDG PET are from esophageal cancer treatment [17, 18]. Bhargava et al. demonstrated increased esophageal FDG activity that can be attributed to radiation therapy as radiation esophagitis in a patient with NSCLC. This diagnosis was based on post-RT FDG PET imaging and demonstrated by endoscopic esophageal biopsy . Nijkamp et al. demonstrated that esophageal FDG uptake around 3 months after concurrent chemo-radiotherapy was associated with grade of esophagitis, and that there was a local dose–effect relationship with post-treatment FDG uptake, in which dose levels >55 Gy were indicative of increased FDG uptake . However, a common factor of all of these prior studies is their usage of post-RT FDG PET. Our study of FDG-uptake during-RT provides the opportunity to detect the radiation esophagitis objectively on PET scan during-RT, which may predict radiation esophagitis in the clinic. Furthermore, during-RT assessments may guide radiation planning in each individual patient to esophagus sparing adaptive radiation therapy late during course. Patients with intense FDG-uptake in esophagus during-RT are at high risk for radiation esophagitis and further radiation to esophagus should be minimized in late course radiotherapy.
FDG activity may be used to supplement traditional dose volume parameters associated with radiation-induced esophagitis. In this study, we found that esophageal FDG SUV increase, concurrent chemotherapy and maximal radiation dose to the esophagus were independent factors associated with the development of radiation esophagitis.
This study was supported in part by: R21CA127057 (FMK), R01 CA 142840-03 (FMK), NSFC81372413 and NSFC81172133 (SY).
- Mascarenhas F, et al.: Acute secondary effects in the esophagus in patients undergoing radiotherapy for carcinoma of the lung. Am J Clin Oncol 1989, 12: 34-40. 10.1097/00000421-198902000-00008View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Werner-Wasik M, et al.: Acute esophagitis and late lung toxicity in concurrent chemoradiotherapy trials in patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: analysis of the radiation therapy oncology group (rtog) database. Clin Lung Cancer 2011, 12: 245-251. 10.1016/j.cllc.2011.03.026View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cox JD, et al.: Interruptions of high-dose radiation therapy decrease long-term survival of favorable patients with unresectable non-small cell carcinoma of the lung: analysis of 1244 cases from 3 radiation therapy oncology group (rtog) trials. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1993, 27: 493-498. 10.1016/0360-3016(93)90371-2View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Challand T, et al.: Esophageal toxicity of radiation therapy: clinical risk factors and management. Cancer Radiother 2012, 16: 364-371. 10.1016/j.canrad.2012.07.180View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maguire PD, et al.: Clinical and dosimetric predictors of radiation-induced esophageal toxicity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1999, 45: 97-103. 10.1016/S0360-3016(99)00163-7View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Takeda K, et al.: Dosimetric correlations of acute esophagitis in lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005, 62: 626-629. 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.04.004View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ozgen A, Hayran M, Kahraman F: Mean esophageal radiation dose is predictive of the grade of acute esophagitis in lung cancer patients treated with concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. J Radiat Res 2012, 21: 21.Google Scholar
- Singh AK, Lockett MA, Bradley JD: Predictors of radiation-induced esophageal toxicity in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003, 55: 337-341. 10.1016/S0360-3016(02)03937-8View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bakheet SM, Powe J: Benign causes of 18-fdg uptake on whole body imaging. Semin Nucl Med 1998, 28: 352-358. 10.1016/S0001-2998(98)80038-XView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brucher BL, et al.: Neoadjuvant therapy of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: response evaluation by positron emission tomography. Ann Surg 2001, 233: 300-309. 10.1097/00000658-200103000-00002PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Flamen P, et al.: Positron emission tomography for assessment of the response to induction radiochemotherapy in locally advanced oesophageal cancer. Ann Oncol 2002, 13: 361-368. 10.1093/annonc/mdf081View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Larson SM: Cancer or inflammation? a holy grail for nuclear medicine. J Nucl Med 1994, 35: 1653-1655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Song SY, et al.: Fdg-pet in the prediction of pathologic response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced, resectable esophageal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005, 63: 1053-1059. 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.03.033View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wieder HA, et al.: Time course of tumor metabolic activity during chemoradiotherapy of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and response to treatment. J Clin Oncol 2004, 22: 900-908. 10.1200/JCO.2004.07.122View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kong FM, et al.: A pilot study of [18f]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans during and after radiation-based therapy in patients with non small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 2007, 25: 3116-3123. 10.1200/JCO.2006.10.3747View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bakheet SM, et al.: F-18 fdg uptake in benign esophageal disease. Clin Nucl Med 1999, 24: 995-997. 10.1097/00003072-199912000-00026View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bhargava P, et al.: Radiation-induced esophagitis on fdg pet imaging. Clin Nucl Med 2003, 28: 849-850. 10.1097/01.rlu.0000090936.30974.e2View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brink I, et al.: Effects of neoadjuvant radio-chemotherapy on 18f-fdg-pet in esophageal carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol 2004, 30: 544-550. 10.1016/j.ejso.2004.03.007View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nijkamp J, et al.: Relating acute esophagitis to radiotherapy dose using fdg-pet in concurrent chemo-radiotherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Radiother Oncol 2013, 106: 118-123. 10.1016/j.radonc.2012.09.024View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.